July 2020 Observing Guide

3 months 3 days ago - 3 months 1 day ago #109104 by Neill
July 2020 Observing Guide was created by Neill
Hi all, 

July's guide is below. Noctilucent Clouds still visible. Jupiter and Saturn at opposition and 3 comets on view (hopefully)

OBSERVING GUIDE
(Please note all times are ST and are based on an observing location of Belfast and covers the month of July)

The Sun

At the start of the month, the Sun rises at 04:55 and sets at 22:00. By month's end, it rises at 05:35 and sets at 21:25.

The Planets

Conjunction

12th am Venus lies 1 degree to the N of Aldebaran (Alpha (α) Tauri, mag +0.9).

Regular Stuff

Mercury is at inferior conjunction on the 1st and is at greatest western elongation on the 22nd. It is visible in the morning sky during the second half of the month. At the end of the month, it rises at 04:00 and is mag -0.7 in Gemini.

Venus is visible in the morning sky in Taurus. At the start of the month, it rises at 03:20 and by month’s end it rises at 02:20. It maintains its brightness at mag -4.3 during the month.

Mars is visible in the morning sky in Pisces. At the start of the month, it rises at 01:10 and by month’s end it rises at 23:40. It brightens from mag -0.5 to mag -1.1 during the month.

Jupiter is at opposition on the 14th and is visible in the evening sky in Sagittarius. At the start of the month, it rises at 22:40 and by month’s end it rises during daylight hours, setting at 03:50. It maintains its brightness at mag -2.6 during the month.

Saturn is at opposition on the 20th and is visible in the evening sky when it moves from Capricornus to Sagittarius. At the start of the month it rises at 22:55 and by month’s end it rises during daylight hours, setting at 04:35. It brightens from mag +0.2 to mag +0.1 during the month.

Uranus is visible in the morning sky in Aries. At the start of the month, it rises at 01:50 and by month’s end it rises at 23:50. It maintains its brightness at mag +5.8 during the month.

Neptune is visible in the morning sky in Aquarius. At the start of the month, it rises at 00:40 and by month’s end it rises at 22:40. It brightens from mag +7.9 to mag +7.8 during the month.

The Moon

The full moon is on the 5th (05:44). The last quarter moon is on the 13th (00:29) with the new moon on the 20th (18:33). The first quarter moon is on the 27th (13:33).

Regular Stuff

2nd pm the 94% waxing gibbous lies NE of Antares (Alpha (α) Scorpii, mag +0.9) at 23:00.

Night of 5th/6th the 99% waning gibbous lies S of Jupiter and SW of Saturn at midnight.

Night of 6th/7th the 96% waning gibbous lies SE of Saturn at midnight.

10th am the 77% waning gibbous lies SW of Neptune at 01:00.

12th am the 59% waning gibbous lies SE of Mars at 02:00.

14th am the 40% waning crescent lies SW of Uranus at 02:00.

16th am the 22% waning crescent lies SW of M45 – The Pleiades at 03:00.

17th am the 14% waning crescent lies N of Venus and NE of Aldebaran (Alpha (α) Tauri, mag +0.9) at 03:00.

19th am the 3% waning crescent lies NE of Mercury at 04:00.

22nd pm the 6% waxing crescent lies NW of Regulus (Alpha (α) Leonis, mag +1.4) at 22:00.

26th pm the 43% waxing crescent lies N of Spica (Alpha (α) Virginis, mag +1.0) at 23:00.

29th pm the 76% waxing gibbous lies NW of Antares (Alpha (α) Scorpii, mag +0.9) at 23:00.

Meteors

The best time to observe meteor showers is when the moon is below the horizon; otherwise its bright glare limits the number you will see especially the fainter ones. Below is a guide to this month's showers.

The Southern Delta Aquariids peak on the morning of the 30th with a ZHR of 25. The radiant is visible from 23:00 on the 29th. Some lunar interference with the waxing gibbous moon setting at 01:15 on the 30th.

There may be additional minor showers this month, details of which can be found in the below Information Sources and Links Section.

Asteroids

Asteroid (532) Herculina is at opposition on the morning of the 3rd at mag +9.5. It can be seen in Sagittarius, low in the S from midnight on the night of the 2nd/3rd.

Asteroid (2) Pallas is at opposition on the evening of the 13th at mag +9.6. It can be seen in Vulpecula as soon as darkness falls.

Finder charts and further information about other fainter asteroids can be found in the below Information Sources and Links Section.

Comets

C/2017 T2 (PanSTARRS) is currently mag +9 at the time of writing (atow) and is predicted to fade during July. It is circumpolar at the start of the month and sets at 04:00 by the middle of the month. By month’s end it sets at 02:00. It moves from Canes Venatici to Coma Berencies during the month. It passes by Chara (Beta (β) Canum Venaticorum, mag +4.2) on the evening of the 1st and on the evening of the 19th, it passes by Beta (β) Comae Berencies, mag +4.2. On the night of July 31st/August 1st, it lies within 3 degrees of C/2019 U6 (Lemmon) when both are setting between 01:00 – 02:00.

C/2019 U6 (Lemmon) was at perihelion on June 18th and is now fading. It is currently mag +6 atow and moves from Sextans to Leo to Virgo to Coma Berencies during the month. It sets too close to sunset at the start of the month to be seen, by the middle of the month it sets at 01:00 and by month’s end it sets at 02:00. On the evening of the 8th, it passes by Sigma (σ) Leonis, mag +4.0. On the evening of the 12th, it passes by Nu (ν) Virginis, mag +4.0. On the evening of the 15th, it passes by Omicron (ο) Virginis, mag +4.1. On the evening of the 20th, it passes by M87. On the evenings of the 21st, it passes by M90. On the evening of the 28th, it passes by Alpha (α) Comae Berencies, mag +4.3 and on the evening of the 29th, it passes by M53.

C/2020 F3 (Neowise) is at perihelion on the 3rd and is currently mag +6 atow (albeit it has not been observed for a few days and is visible on the SOHO Coronagraph June 22-29). It moves from Taurus to Auriga to Lynx to Ursa Major to Coma Berencies during the month. It is not visible at the start of the month, but is circumpolar by the middle of the month. It sets at 02:00 at month’s end. On the morning of the 5th, it passes by M37. On the evening of the 7th, it passes by Theta (θ) Aurigae, mag +2.6. On the evening of the 18th, it passes by Talitha (Iota (ι) Ursae Majoris, mag +3.1). On the evening of the 22nd, it passes by Lambda (λ) Ursae Majoris, mag +3.5. On the evening of the 24th, it passes by Psi (ψ) Ursae Majoris, mag +3.0. On the evening of the 31st, it passes by Gamma (γ) Comae Berencies, mag +4.4.

Finder charts and further information about the above and other fainter comets can be found in the below Information Sources and Links Section. Any of the above estimates are based on current information at the time of writing the guide and can be wrong - “Comets are like cats; they have tails, and they do precisely what they want”, David H Levy.

Deep Sky

On the deep sky front this month, galaxies M81 and M82 can be observed in Ursa Major. Check out the constellation Canes Venatici with the globular cluster - M3 and several galaxies including M51 - the Whirlpool Galaxy and M63 - the Sunflower Galaxy. In Hercules, two globular clusters - M92 and the excellent M13 can be observed and in Lyra - M57 - The Ring Nebula can be observed. In Vulpecula - M27 - The Dumbbell Nebula can be found. In Andromeda, M31 - The Andromeda galaxy can be observed along with its satellite galaxies M32 and M110. In Perseus, there is the open cluster M34 and the excellent Double Cluster. Finally in Triangulum, there is the galaxy M33.

General Notes

Always keep an eye out for Aurorae. The night sky does not get fully dark this month. Between mid-May and the early August, Astronomical twilight is present at night. This is when the sun is between twelve and eighteen degrees below the horizon.
Watch out for NLCs - Noctilucent Clouds during July. Look to the North-West for a white/silvery glow 1.5 - 2 hours after sunset and to the North-East a similar amount of time before sunrise. They can sometimes be faint, sometimes bright. Other interesting naked eye phenomena to look out for include the Zodiacal Light and the Gegenschein. Both are caused by sunlight reflecting off dust particles which are present in the solar system.

Zodiacal Light can be seen in the West after evening twilight has disappeared or in the East before the morning twilight. The best time of year to see the phenomenon is late-Feb to early-April in the evening sky and September/October in the morning sky - it's then that the ecliptic, along which the cone of the zodiacal light lies, is steepest in our skies. The Gegenschein can be seen in the area of the sky opposite the sun. To view either, you must get yourself to a very dark site to cut out the light pollution. When trying to observe either of these phenomena, it is best to do so when the moon is below the horizon. A new appendix has been added explaining some of the more technical terms used in the guide.

Clear Skies

Neill McKeown

Information Sources and Links

Sky at Night Magazine Observing Guide – All Rounder
Stardust Magazine – All Rounder
in-the-sky.org/– All Rounder
www.nightskyhunter.com/ - All Rounder
Philip's Stargazing 2020 – All Rounder
Collins 2020 Guide to the Night Sky – All Rounder
www.heavens-above.com – All Rounder
Sky Safari App – All Rounder
Stellarium App – All Rounder
www.timeanddate.com/astronomy/ - All Rounder
www.irishastronomy.org - Irish Federation of Astronomy Societies Website and Calendar – All Rounder
irishastro.org.uk/- Irish Astronomical Association website – All Rounder
www.eaas.co.uk - Northern Ireland Amateur Astronomy Society – All Rounder
eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/cgi-bin/koyomi/cande/phenomena_en.cgi – Sun/Planets/Moon Only
International Meteor Organisation - www.imo.net/files/meteor-shower/cal2020.pdf - Meteors Only
britastro.org/computing/charts_asteroid.html – Asteroids Only
www.aerith.net – Comets Only
www.ast.cam.ac.uk/%7Ejds/ - Comets Only
astro.vanbuitenen.nl – Comets Only
theskylive.com/ - Comets/Asteroids
messier.seds.org/ - The Messier Catalogue website – Deep Sky Only
www.spaceweather.com – Aurorae Forecasts/Naked Eye Atmospherics

Appendix

The ZHR or Zenithal Hourly Rate is the number of meteors an observer would see in one hour under a clear, dark sky with a limiting apparent magnitude of 6.5 and if the radiant of the shower were in the zenith. The rate that can effectively be seen is nearly always lower and decreases as the radiant is closer to the horizon. The Zenith is the overhead point in the sky.

The radiant is the point in the sky, from which (to a planetary observer) meteors appear to originate, i.e. the Perseids, for example, are meteors which appear to come from a point within the constellation of Perseus. When the radiant is quoted as "circumpolar", it is never below the horizon and visible all night, otherwise the times quoted are when the constellation in which the radiant lies rises above the horizon in the East.

A fireball is defined by the International Astronomical Union as a meteor brighter than any of the planets, i.e. magnitude -4 or brighter. The International Meteor Organisation alternatively defines it as a meteor which would have a magnitude of -3 or brighter at the zenith.

The full moon’s width when viewed from the Earth is 30 arc minutes or ½ a degree. This should give an idea for judging any distances quoted in the guide.

An asterism is a collection of stars seen in Earth's sky which form simple patterns which are easy to identify, i.e. the Big Dipper. They can be formed from stars within the same constellation or by stars from more than one constellation. Like the constellations, they are a line of sight phenomenon and the stars whilst visible in the same general direction, are not physically related and are often at significantly different distances from Earth.

A conjunction is when two objects appear to be close to each other in the sky according to the perspective of the observer.

Mag is short for magnitude which is the measure of an object's brightness. The smaller the number, the brighter the object. The brightest object in the sky is the Sun at mag -26, the full moon is mag -12 and Venus the brightest planet is mag -4. The brightest stars are mag -1. If there is a 1 mag difference between two objects - there is a difference in brightness of a factor of 2.5 between the two objects. For example the full moon is eight magnitudes brighter than Venus on average which means it is 1,526 times brighter than Venus. Objects down to mag +6 can be seen with the naked eye under very dark skies.

For the Comets, PanSTARRS stands for Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, Lemmon means Mount Lemmon Observatory part of the Catalina Sky Survey and Neowise stands for the space telescope Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer.

Local time is always quoted in the guide and this means for November - February - universal time (UT)/GMT is used and for April to September - daylight savings time (DST, = GMT+1). For the months of March and October when the clocks go forward/back respectively, both times will be used and attention should be paid to any times at the end of these months for that change.

Deep Sky Objects such as galaxies, nebulae and star clusters are classified in catalogues such as the Messier catalogue for objects like M44 - M for Messier. Another example of a catalogue would the New General catalogue whose objects have the prefix NGC. There are links for websites to both catalogues in the section above.

Perihelion is the point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid or comet where it is at the nearest point in its orbit to the sun. It is the opposite of Aphelion, which is when the object is at the farthest point in its orbit from the sun. For the earth, the comparative terms used are perigee and apogee and for the moon, pericynthion and apocynthion are sometimes used.

The Planets

From Earth - Mercury and Venus are the inner planets in the solar system and Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are the outer planets. Below is a short guide as to how both the inner and outer planets move around the sun. The above pictorial guide should hopefully help in this.

The Inner Planets

These are best seen when at Greatest Eastern/Western elongation and are not visible when at either Inferior/Superior conjunction. Greatest Eastern elongation is when the inner planet is at its furthest point east from the sun as seen from Earth and visible in the evening sky in the West after sunset, Western elongation is when it's at its furthest point west from the sun as seen from Earth and visible in the morning sky in the East before sunrise. Inferior conjunction occurs when the inner planet is between the Sun and the Earth. Superior conjunction occurs when the inner planet is on the other side of the Sun as seen from Earth.

From our Northerly latitudes, the ecliptic, along which the planets move, lies at a very shallow angle to the horizon after sunset in the autumn and before sunrise in the spring. This means that any of the planets will be difficult to see when fairly close to the Sun in the evening sky in the autumn or in the morning sky in the spring. In particular, Mercury is more or less invisible from here when at Eastern elongation in the autumn or at Western elongation in the spring, because it lies so close to the horizon and is never above the horizon except in daylight or bright twilight.

The normal cycle for an inner planet is Superior Conjunction - Greatest Eastern Elongation - Inferior Conjunction - Greatest Western Elongation - Superior Conjunction. After superior conjunction, the planet moves away from the Sun as seen from Earth and becomes visible in the evening sky after a period of time. It then moves past the point of Greatest Eastern Elongation and moves back towards the Sun as seen from Earth until a point when it is not visible and at Inferior Conjunction. After this the planet appears in the morning sky for a time, before again slipping into the Sun's glare as seen from Earth. The duration of this cycle will depend on the planet's closeness to the Sun, i.e. Mercury completes the above cycle in around 4 months.

The Outer Planets

These are best seen when at opposition and are not visible when at conjunction. Opposition occurs when the earth is between the sun and the outer planet. It is the best time to observe them because the planet is visible all through the night and it is due south and at its highest at about midnight. The planet is also at its closest point in its orbit to Earth - making it appear brighter. Conjunction occurs when the outer planet is on the other side of the Sun as seen from Earth.

If the planet is at or near it furthest point south along the ecliptic, then it won't get very high in the sky even at opposition - just as the Sun never gets high in the sky in midwinter. This happens when opposition occurs near midsummer when the planet is opposite the Sun in the sky and in midsummer the Sun is high, so the planet will be low. The opposite of course applies in winter.

The normal cycle for an outer planet is Conjunction - Western Quadrature - Opposition - Eastern Quadrature - Conjunction. After conjunction, the planet moves away from the Sun as seen from Earth and becomes visible again. The planet from this point on rises earlier and earlier in the morning sky and eventually becomes visible in the evening sky. At Western Quadrature it is at its highest at sunrise and by opposition it is in the same position by midnight. By Eastern Quadrature, it is past its best and is at its highest at sunset, meaning it is rising in daytime and setting earlier and earlier until a point when it sets too close to the Sun as seen from Earth and is no longer visible. The duration of this cycle will depend on the planet's closeness to the Sun, i.e. Jupiter completes the above cycle in around 13-14 months.

Linda: "All in all, this is one day Mittens the kitten won't soon forget."
Morbo: "Kittens give Morbo gas."
The following user(s) said Thank You: michael_murphy, lunartic, flt158, Fermidox, scfahy, Until_then-Goodnight!

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3 months 3 days ago #109105 by Until_then-Goodnight!
Replied by Until_then-Goodnight! on topic July 2020 Observing Guide
Hi Neill, 

Very many thanks for another comprehensive observing guide. July seems like a great month. Hopefully, we'll have many clear nights to make the most of all these wonderous objects. 

Clear skies, 

Darren. 

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